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ansible

ansible

Directory Layout

Directory Layout

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production                # inventory file for production servers
staging # inventory file for staging environment

group_vars/
group1.yml # here we assign variables to particular groups
group2.yml
host_vars/
hostname1.yml # here we assign variables to particular systems
hostname2.yml

library/ # if any custom modules, put them here (optional)
module_utils/ # if any custom module_utils to support modules, put them here (optional)
filter_plugins/ # if any custom filter plugins, put them here (optional)

site.yml # master playbook
webservers.yml # playbook for webserver tier
dbservers.yml # playbook for dbserver tier

roles/
common/ # this hierarchy represents a "role"
tasks/ #
main.yml # <-- tasks file can include smaller files if warranted
handlers/ #
main.yml # <-- handlers file
templates/ # <-- files for use with the template resource
ntp.conf.j2 # <------- templates end in .j2
files/ #
bar.txt # <-- files for use with the copy resource
foo.sh # <-- script files for use with the script resource
vars/ #
main.yml # <-- variables associated with this role
defaults/ #
main.yml # <-- default lower priority variables for this role
meta/ #
main.yml # <-- role dependencies
library/ # roles can also include custom modules
module_utils/ # roles can also include custom module_utils
lookup_plugins/ # or other types of plugins, like lookup in this case

webtier/ # same kind of structure as "common" was above, done for the webtier role
monitoring/ # ""
fooapp/ # ""

roles下的目录含义:

files:用来存放由copy模块或script模块调用的文件。
templates:用来存放jinjia2模板,template模块会自动在此目录中寻找jinjia2模板文件。
tasks:此目录应当包含一个main.yml文件,用于定义此角色的任务列表,此文件可以使用include包含其它的位于此目录的task文件。
handlers:此目录应当包含一个main.yml文件,用于定义此角色中触发条件时执行的动作。
vars:此目录应当包含一个main.yml文件,用于定义此角色用到的变量。
defaults:此目录应当包含一个main.yml文件,用于为当前角色设定默认变量。
meta:此目录应当包含一个main.yml文件,用于定义此角色的特殊设定及其依赖关系。

Alternative Directory Layout

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inventories/
production/
hosts # inventory file for production servers
group_vars/
group1.yml # here we assign variables to particular groups
group2.yml
host_vars/
hostname1.yml # here we assign variables to particular systems
hostname2.yml

staging/
hosts # inventory file for staging environment
group_vars/
group1.yml # here we assign variables to particular groups
group2.yml
host_vars/
stagehost1.yml # here we assign variables to particular systems
stagehost2.yml

library/
module_utils/
filter_plugins/

site.yml
webservers.yml
dbservers.yml

roles/
common/
webtier/
monitoring/
fooapp/

env

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./
├── filter_plugins
├── group_vars
├── host_vars
│   └── hosts
├── library
├── module_utils
├── roles
└── site.yaml

6 directories, 2 files

ansible cli

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# find system serial
# --module-name or -m --args or -a
ansible localhost --module-name setup --args 'filter=ansible_product_serial'

# list groups
ansible localhost -m debug -a 'var=groups'

# list groups keys
ansible localhost -m debug -a 'var=groups.keys()'

# list groups(or this command)
ansible-inventory -i inventory/prod.yml --list

hello world

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---
-
name: This is a hello-world example
hosts: localhost
gather_facts: no
tasks:
-
set_fact:
hello: 'hello world'
-
name: Create a file called '/tmp/testfile.txt' with the content 'hello world'.
copy:
# get variable from hostvars
content: '{{ hostvars[inventory_hostname]["hello"] }}'
dest: /tmp/testfile.txt

append some lines to a test file

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---
-
name: This is a hello-world example
hosts: localhost
vars:
device_by_pci_address: "{{
ansible_facts | json_query('@.* | [?pciid].{key: pciid, value: device}') | items2dict
}}"
tasks:
-
name: To set some variables to hostvars
set_fact:
classmates:
-
sex: 'male'
name: 'AA'
age: 15
-
sex: 'female'
name: 'BB'
age: 16
-
sex: 'male'
name: 'CC'
-
sex: 'female'
name: 'DD'
-
sex: 'male'
name: 'lo'
-
sex: 'female'
name: 'enp0s3'
pci_bus_addr2nic: "{{ ansible_facts | json_query('@.* | [?pciid].{key: pciid, value: device}') | items2dict }}"

-
name: Get system serial
become: true
shell: cat /sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_serial
register: system_serial

-
name: To create a test file
file:
path: /tmp/testfile.txt
state: touch
owner: root
group: root
mode: 0777

-
name: To append some lines to the test file
lineinfile:
# test: get the mac address of a nic
line: '{{ item.name }}: {{ item.sex }} ==> {{ ansible_facts[item.name].macaddress }} '
dest: /tmp/testfile.txt
loop: '{{ hostvars[inventory_hostname]["classmates"] }}'
when: inventory_hostname not in ['host1', 'host2'] and item.name in ['enp0s3']
-
name: To add a block to a file
blockinfile:
dest: /tmp/testfile.txt
block: |
hello world
Java is the best.
system_serial.stdout: {{ system_serial.stdout }}

{{ hostvars[inventory_hostname].system_serial.stdout }}
#########
pci_bus_addr2nic: {{ pci_bus_addr2nic }}

{{ hostvars[inventory_hostname]["pci_bus_addr2nic"] }}
###########
device_by_pci_address: {{ device_by_pci_address }}

Must not Get from this way: hostvars[inventory_hostname]["device_by_pci_address"]
-
debug:
var: pci_bus_addr2nic
-
debug:
var: device_by_pci_address
-
debug:
# this variable is from ansible_facts
# you can get some info by this command (ansible localhost --module-name setup --args 'filter=ansible_product_serial')
var: ansible_product_serial
-
debug:
var: system_serial.stdout



install a package on RHEL

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---
-
name: install Apache webserver
hosts: webservers
tasks:
-
name: install httpd
dnf:
name: httpd
State: latest

install a package on Debian

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---
-
name: install Apache webserver
hosts: databases
tasks:
-
name: install Apache webserver
apt:
name: apache2
State: latest

operate a service

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---
# https://medium.com/bigpanda-engineering/using-ansible-to-compile-nginx-from-sources-with-custom-modules-f6e6c6a42493
-
name: Start service httpd, if not started
service:
name: httpd
state: started
---
-
name: Stop service httpd
service:
name: httpd
state: stopped
---
-
name: Restart network service for interface eth0
service:
name: network
state: restarted
args: enp2s0