0%

Time complexity in isEmpty() and size()

Time complexity in isEmpty() and size()

Conclusion

isEmpty() is always O(1).

size() is mostly O(1), but it can be also O(n).

Why?

Mostly, size() and isEmpty() implementation

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
public int size() {
return size;
}

public boolean isEmpty() {
return size == 0;
}

For the above, both of their time complexity is O(1).


For ConcurrentLinkedQueue class

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
/**
* Returns the first live (non-deleted) node on list, or null if none.
* This is yet another variant of poll/peek; here returning the
* first node, not element. We could make peek() a wrapper around
* first(), but that would cost an extra volatile read of item,
* and the need to add a retry loop to deal with the possibility
* of losing a race to a concurrent poll().
*/
Node<E> first() {
restartFromHead: for (;;) {
for (Node<E> h = head, p = h, q;; p = q) {
boolean hasItem = (p.item != null);
if (hasItem || (q = p.next) == null) {
updateHead(h, p);
return hasItem ? p : null;
}
else if (p == q)
continue restartFromHead;
}
}
}

/**
* Returns {@code true} if this queue contains no elements.
*
* @return {@code true} if this queue contains no elements
*/
public boolean isEmpty() {
return first() == null;
}

/**
* Returns the number of elements in this queue. If this queue
* contains more than {@code Integer.MAX_VALUE} elements, returns
* {@code Integer.MAX_VALUE}.
*
* <p>Beware that, unlike in most collections, this method is
* <em>NOT</em> a constant-time operation. Because of the
* asynchronous nature of these queues, determining the current
* number of elements requires an O(n) traversal.
* Additionally, if elements are added or removed during execution
* of this method, the returned result may be inaccurate. Thus,
* this method is typically not very useful in concurrent
* applications.
*
* @return the number of elements in this queue
*/
public int size() {
restartFromHead: for (;;) {
int count = 0;
for (ConcurrentLinkedQueue.Node<E> p = first(); p != null;) {
if (p.item != null)
if (++count == Integer.MAX_VALUE)
break; // @see Collection.size()
if (p == (p = p.next))
continue restartFromHead;
}
return count;
}
}

For this, isEmpty() is O(1), size() is O(n).